Last updated: January 4, 1990
Published by the International Relations Center / Interhemispheric Resource Center.
Background: Jesse Helms, ultraconservative Senator from North Carolina, was the driving force behind the formation of The Conservative Caucus (TCC). Helms, acting on a memo from his top political adviser, John Carbaugh, encouraged his staff member, Howard Phillips, to start the organization. Phillips worked with the direct mail wizard of the New Right, Richard Viguerie, in 1974 to form the organization. TCC’s first field director was Ed McAteer. (39)
TCC is an aggressive grassroots lobbying group that works at the congressional district level to have its ultraconservative agenda implemented at the national level. TCC is stridently anticommunist, pro-military, pro-free enterprise, and pro-family. (4,5) Its stated principles are: 1) right to enjoy the income from one’s own labor; 2) right to personal security; 3) right to educational freedom; 4) right to religious liberty; 5) right to life; 6) right to national sovereignty; 7) right to economic justice; 8) right to be individually judged; 9) right to political and economic liberty; and 10) right to self-government. (7)
TCC has three divisions: the lobbying arm, the TCC Political Action Committee, and TCC Research, Analysis & Education Foundation, Inc. , a 501(c)(3) organization. (8,9)
TCC reported in 1990 that it had 750,000 members and a fulltime staff of 25. (8)
Funding: The TCC depends on contributions for its funding. Membership is $15, and for $1,000 annually one can join the Chairman’s Council. (5) Among the major contributors to the TCC Foundation in 1986 were: Lewis H. Lehrman, $75,000; Milliken & Company, $55,000; Natural Gas Supply, $147,000; Papa Gino’s of America, $139,778; Lincoln Log Homes, Inc, $75,000; and Stewart H. Woodward, $80,000. From its 1986 tax return it appears that the TCC Foundation operated at a loss. (9)
Contributions to TCC in 1988 totalled $3,167,059; expenditures in the same year were $3,124,038. According to TCC promotional materials, expenditures for 1988 went to support the following activities: national campaign to reject the INF Treaty–$571,822; victory over communism in South Africa-$221,054; liberate Nicaragua–$159,407; coalition for a winning [Republican] ticket–$20,236; reclaim the Panama Canal-$708,540; defeat Dukakis agenda–$95,188; legal challenge to the constitutionality of the Boland amendments–$1,015,357; and "other projects"–$332,434. (13)
TCC is apparently having difficulty meeting its long term debt obligations. The 1989 annual report made a plea for donations to "continue to reduce our debt and pay urgent bills."(13) A 1989 letter claimed that "TCC’s bank account is nearly empty. A number of bills are past due, including our monthly rent, and it may be more difficult than usual to meet our next payroll."(16)
Activities: The activities of TCC include congressional testimony; direct mail, billboard, radio, and television campaigns; phone banks; and press conferences directed towards implementation of the group’s ultraconservative agenda. (10)
The focus of TCC’s activities in 1989 were: 1) to reclaim the Panama Canal; 2) to fight for victory over communism in Nicaragua; 3) to terminate all "subsidies" to the Soviet Union; 4) to prevent the "sell out" of Jonas Savimbi and his anticommunist "freedom fighters" in Angola; 5) to oppose U.S. funding of the United Nations; 6) to oppose economic and military sanctions designed to destabilize the government of South Africa; 7) to strengthen federal surveillance of Soviet subversion within the U.S. ; 8) to promote legislation terminating federal subsidies to labor unions, abortionists, militant homosexual groups, Legal Services Corporation, and other "left-wing" organizations; and 9) to oppose efforts to derail SDI for a START treaty with the Soviet Union. (6) Other goals mentioned in previous TCC literature include withdrawal of the U.S. from the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty, implementation of a 10-percent Flat Rate Tax, elimination of the "unconstitutional ‘Great Society’ spending programs," and restoration of the Monroe Doctrine with regard to Central America. (5)
In its ongoing campaign opposing the INF treaty the TCC in 1988 made a 30-minute documentary film on the deficiencies of the proposed treaty. The film, aired on the Christian Broadcasting Network, featured remarks by Senators Jesse Helms and Gordon Humphrey (R-NH) and retired military personnel Major General John Singlaub and Brigadier General Albion Knight. (13) Humphrey also chaired TCC’s "Coalition for a Winning Ticket," a group which "urged Vice President Bush to consider as prospective running mates only persons with clearly enunciated conservative stands on key issues."(13)
TCC helped to line up 18 co-sponsors for Rep. Philip Crane’s 10-percent Flat Tax bill (H. R. 111). (13) The Oliver North Defense Committee was a major project of TCC in 1987. Its goal was to gain the support of 600,000 TCC members on behalf of North, the former National Security aide who oversaw an illegal network which supplied the Nicaraguan contras. In January of 1987, national field director Dave Sanders claimed the committee membership to be around 5,000. (11) A later letter stated that the committee had fallen slightly short of its goal, collecting only 43,000 "declarations of support."(6)
Throughout the 1980s TCC was an active lobbyist for contra aid. The organization raised $40,000 to lobby Congress for contra aid. (19) TCC, along with groups such as the Committee for the Survival of a Free Congress, and the National Defense Council, organized a number of shipments of humanitarian aid to the contras. (20,21) TCC director Andy Messing used the Denton amendment to have some of the TCC shipments sent to Honduras on a Mississippi Air National Guard flight. (22)
TCC sponsored a full-page ad that appeared in a number of publications in early 1989 opposing implementation of UN (United Nations) 435 in Namibia and Angola, calling it a "surrender to Soviet Control two nations more than 3 times the size of Texas."(17) TCC worked with Citizens for America and RAMBO (Restore a More Benevolent Order) coalition in an attempt to rally support for UNITA leader Jonas Savimbi and his rightwing guerrilla movement against the Angolan government. (24)
In 1989 TCC joined with other groups in direct mail and lobbying effort to repeal the the 1988 "Medicare Catastrophic Coverage Act."(14)
TCC’s efforts to support the government of South Africa have included costly tours ($4,500 per person) which feature"confidential financial and intelligence briefings." TCC joined with other rightwing groups in a campaign to dump Chester Crocker and George Shultz from the State Department because they were not supportive of the Right’s agenda for South Africa.
(27) The TCCPAC is considered a leading member of the South Africa lobby in the U.S. (12)
TCC Research, Analysis and Education Foundation conducts research and analysis on public policy questions. Information compiled by the group is used by congressmen, senators, federal government officials, White House personnel, and others. Publications of the foundation include: Senate Report, Senate Issues Yearbook, Eye on Bureaucracy, and Inside Bureaucracy. (50) In 1989 the Reunion Conference of the Council on Southern Africa was a benefit for the TCC Foundation. Speakers at the reunion included Maj. Gen. John K. Singlaub (ret) and Jardo Muekalia of UNITA, the Angolan rebel group led by Savimbi. (51)
Government Connections: Howard Phillips directed the Office of Economic Opportunity in the Nixon administration. (24) Before founding TCC he was a part-time staff person for Senator Jesse Helms. (39) Major General John K. Singlaub (ret) served in the Office of Strategic Services, the forerunner of the CIA, during World War II and was deputy chief of the CIA in Seoul during the Korean War. (43) In Vietnam he was commander of the Joint Unconventional Warfare Task Force (MACVSOG), the outfit that ran Operation Phoenix–infamous for its assassinations and counterterrorist activities. Singlaub denies involvement with Operation Phoenix. (41) Singlaub was forced to retire from the military after he publicly condemned President Jimmy Carter’s decision to reduce the number of troops in Korea. He was chief of staff of the United Nations Command in Korea at the time. (41) Singlaub served as honorary chairman of Ronald Reagan’s presidential campaign in Colorado in 1980. (43) In 1984 Undersecretary of Defense Fred Ikle appointed Singlaub to head a committee studying U.S. responses to the insurgency in El Salvador. (44)
Private Connections: Howard Phillips along with Terry Dolan founder of National Conservative Political Action Committee (NCPAC), direct mail king Richard Viguerie, and Paul Weyrich were known as "the movers and shakers" of the New Right in the early 1980s. The four worked together to coalesce the Christian Right over the abortion issue. (24) Phillips is or was in 1989 on the advisory board of the World Anti-Communist League. (12)
Phillips was on the advisory board of Citizens Against The Catastrophic Health Tax Act (CATCHA), a group chaired by Richard Viguerie and spearheaded in congress by Rep. Mark Siljander. (15) He was a member of the RAMBO coalition and assisted RAMBO with its boycott campaign against Chevron Corporation to protest its dealings with the Angolan government. (24) The RAMBO coalition included the following groups from the extreme right: Young Americans for Freedom, Students for America, Freedom’s Friends, The Conservative Caucus, Alpha 66, American Coalition for Traditional Values, Alive and Free, National Young Vietnamese for Freedom, and Nemesis. (45) Phillips was a member of the advisory board of the U.S. branch of the World Anti-Communist League (WACL), the United States Council for World Freedom, and was on the board of directors of WACL. (12,28) He is or was a member and served on the executive committee of the elite rightwing strategy group, Council for National Policy. (29) Phillips served on the 1988 board of Lewis Lehrman’s grassroots lobby, Citizens for America. (31) Phillips helped Paul Weyrich and Jerry Falwell establish the Moral Majority. He was also involved in forming and was a member of the Council of 56 of the Religious Roundtable, a coalition of conservative business, military, political and religious leaders working to bring conservative biblical principles into public policy. (32,33)
Jack Abramoff was the founder and first director of the rightwing think tank, International Freedom Foundation. He currently sits on the IFF board. Abramoff served as chairman of the very conservative College Republican National Committee from 1981 to 1985. From 1984 to 1985 he was executive director of Citizen’s for America (CFA). CFA, headquartered at the Heritage Foundation, a conservative think tank, was begun by beer baron Joseph Coors and Rite-Way drugstore heir Lewis Lehrman. Abramoff also chaired the Heritage Foundation-based United Students of America Foundation (USA Foundation) in 1984. Abramoff is or was a member of the secretive rightwing Council for National Policy. (12)
Charles Lichenstein in 1989 was the chairman of the International Freedom Foundation’s advisory board and chairman of the international advisory board of the International Security Council, a group associated with the Unification Church. Lichenstein is a senior fellow at Heritage Foundation. (12)
Richard Viguerie is known as the wizard of the direct mail industry for conservative causes. He began his career as an activist working for the Young Americans for Freedom and the Committee for the Monroe Doctrine, a group started in the 1960s to agitate against U.S. accommodation with Cuba. (24) He ran direct mail campaigns for TCC, the Committee for the Survival of a Free Congress, and the National Conservative Political Action Committee (NCPAC). (34) He was on the board of Citizens for America and handled its direct mail campaigns. (35) In the mid1980s Viguerie fell into debt and was bailed out by the $10 million sale of his building to the Unification Church of Rev. Sun Myung Moon. Viguerie was on the board of the American Freedom Coalition (AFC), a Moon-affiliated group that works against anything that is seen to threaten "traditional" values. (35) Viguerie did mailings for the AFC as well as the Unification church-owned Washington Times. (36)
Rich DeVos was head of the Council for National Policy in 1987. (29) DeVos also served on the board of reference of MAP International, an organization which donates medical supplies and equipment to Christian missions in third world countries. (52)
Ed McAteer retired from his position as sales marketing manager for Colgate-Palmolive Company to become the national field director for the Christian Freedom Foundation, an organization devoted to training evangelicals for positions of leadership in government. (37) He is or was a member of the board of the evangelical Wycliffe Bible Associates. (37) In 1975 McAteer was an official delegate to the Congress on World Evangelism in Lausanne, Switzerland. In 1983 he was on the boards of The Gideons, Teen Challenge, Bill Glass Evangelistic Association, the All-Indian Prayer Fellowship, and the Asian Evangelistic Fellowship. (37) McAteer helped Jerry Falwell start the Moral Majority and served as press contact for the group. (24) He is or was a member of the Council for National Policy. (30)
John Carbaugh attended the 1980 and 1984 WACL annual conventions. (41) Carbaugh played an important role in the "repackaging" of the public image of Roberto D’Aubuisson, the alleged leader of the death squads and head of the Arena party in El Salvador. (41)
Major General John K. Singlaub (ret) was the chairman of WACL until mid-1986. Singlaub was the founder and chairman of the USCWF until it closed its doors in 1989. (41,57) He is or was a member of the RAMBO coalition. (45) Singlaub is or was on the national policy board of the American Freedom Coalition. (42) He is or was a member of the Council for National Policy. (30) Other rightwing groups of which he has been a board member include Refugee Relief International (a subsidiary of Soldier of Fortune), Western Goals, the Committee for a Free Afghanistan, and Western Goals in the United Kingdom. (46,47. 48)
Senator Jesse Helms has several tax-exempt foundations in Washington including The Institute of American Relations and its Foreign Affairs Council; the American Family Institute; the Center for a Free Society; and the Institute on Money and Inflation. (38) Helms is or was on the Council for National Policy and was a member of the Congressional Caucus on National Security of the American Security Council’s Coalition f
or Peace Through Strength. (30,49)
Andy Messing was on the board of the Freedom Research Foundation’s group that worked in support of the anticommunist rebels in Angola. (23) Messing founded the National Defense Council Foundation, a group that worked in support of the U.S. foreign and military policy of low intensity conflict. (55,56) During the 1980s Messing made 40 trips to Central America leading members of Congress and the media. (53,54) Messing is or was on the Council for National Policy and served on the board of the U.S. Council for World Freedom. (28,30)
Nelson Bunker Hunt has been a billionaire patron of the Right. He was a member of the John Birch Society Council and part owner of the Society’s two magazines. Hunt was deeply involved in Bill Bright’s (Campus Crusade for Christ) "Here’s Life, World" evangelistic campaign and reportedly contributed $15. 5 million to the campaign. (38,39) Hunt was a financial backer of the presidential campaigns of such conservative stalwarts as George Wallace, General Curtis LeMay, Strom Thurman, and Pat Robertson. He has participated in a number of groups seeking to have the agenda of the New Right become the policy of the U.S. government. Among them are: Council for National Policy, NCPAC, the Institute of American Relations, and Citizens for America. (36,40)
J. A. Parker is or was chairman of the rightwing Lincoln Institute for Research and Education. He was a board member of the United States Council for World Freedom. (28) Parker is or was on the advisory council of the American Freedom Coalition (AFC) and was a speaker at the 1983 CAUSA USA conference in Honduras. (41) He was also on the national advisory board of the Emergency Project to Support Colonel North’s Freedom Fight in Central America, a project of the AFC. (42)
Dr. Hans Sennholtz is or was a member of the Council for National Policy. (30) Sennholtz was associated with Western Goals, a private, domestic intelligence group founded by the late Congressman Larry McDonald. Sennholtz was a decorated pilot in the Luftwaffe, Hilter’s elite air corps. (3)
Co-signing the TCC ad opposing the implementation of UN 435 were: David Keene of the American Conservative Union, J. Brent Bozell III of the Conservative Victory Committee, Peter J. Flaherty of the Conservative Campaign Fund, John Fisher of the American Security Council, Beverly La Haye of Concerned Women for America, John K. Singlaub of the U.S. Council for World Freedom, Henry Walther of the U.S. Defense Committee, Paul Weyrich of Coalitions for America, Richard Viguerie of United Conservatives of America, J. Andy Messing of the National Defense Council Foundation, and representatives from Free the Eagle and the National Congressional Club. (17)
In 1984 TCC helped the rightwing paramilitary Air CommandoAssociation raise funds. (18)
TCC helped Jack Wheeler found the Freedom Research Foundation (FRF) in 1984. FRF is a networking and public relations agency for third-world anticommunist groups. (23)
Misc: TCC has a long history of trying to undermine the funding for Legal Services Corporation. This priority comes from the organization’s close association with the Farm Bureau, a major farm lobby The Farm Bureau dislikes Legal Service’s work with migrant workers, and Legal Services has several offices that specialize in legal assistance for migrant workers. (25)
When President Ronald Reagan began talking with Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev, Phillips called him a "useful idiot for Soviet propaganda."(26)
Comments:U.S. Address: 450 Maple Ave. E. , Vienna, Virginia 22180.
Principals: Members of the board of directors in 1989 were: Howard Phillips, chairman; Peter J. Thomas, secretary; Lawrence J. Straw, Jr. , treasurer; Dr. James P. Lucier; J. Alan MacKay; and Dr. James McClellan. (1)
Officers in 1989 were: Howard Phillips, national director; Charles Orndorff, administrative vice chairman; Margie Wilkins, director of administrative services; Peggy Cross, financial secretary; Dave Sanders, national field director; Arthur Harman, field coordinator, and Jack Abramoff, TCCPAC executive director. (1)
Members of the National Advisory Board in November of 1988 were Sen. Jesse Helms (R-NC); Rep. Joe L. Barton (R-TX); Rep. Beau Boulter (R-TX); Rep. Dan Burton (R-IN); Rep. Philip Crane (R-IL); Rep. William Dannemeyer (R-CA); Rep. Hal Daub (R-NE); Rep. Robert K. Dornan (R-CA); Rep. Bill Emerson (R-MO); Rep. Wally Herger (R-CA); Rep. Duncan Hunter (R-CA); Rep. Ernest Konnyu (R-CA); Rep. D. E."Buz" Lukens (R-OH); Rep. Ron Packard (R-CA); Rep. Norman Shumway (R-CA); Rep. Denny Smith (R-OR); Rep. Robert C. Smith (R-NH); Rep. Bob Stump (R-AZ); Rep. Pat Swindall (R-GA); Tom Ellis, Esq. ; Dr. Jerry Falwell; Hon. David Fundrburk; Dr. Ron Godwin; Lt. Gen. Daniel O. Graham (USA Ret); Dr. D. James Kennedy; Hon. Charles Lichenstein; John McClaughry; Dr. Gary North; Kentucky State Rep. Tom Riner; Dr. R. J. Rushdoony; Dr. Hans Sennholz; Maj. Gen. John K. Singlaub (USA Ret); Hon. Marion H. Smoak; and Carter Wrenn. (2)
Members of the Chairman’s Council as of Nov 30, 1988 were: Larry H. Abraham, Margaret A. Auld, Edward S. Bauer, Arthur C. Beard, S. E. Belcher, Jr. , Guy M. Bjorkman, Barbara B. Christian, Dr. & Mrs. Martin Claussen, Mr. & Mrs. J. Deering Danielson, Charles G. Dannelly, Richard DeVos, H. G. Dillingham, Jr. , Capitola D. Edmondson, Curtiss E. Frank, Glenn H. Fishbeck, John French, Genevieve Galliford, Walter Galliford, Jr. , Robert W. Garthwait, Ellen Garwood, Roberta Hambleton, Betty Hestbeck, H. Wendell Hobbs, Nelson Bunker Hunt, Linda Jones, Charlotte Jurgensen, Edward C. Lee, B. J. Mauer, Norman McClelland, Hon. & Mrs. J. W. Middendorf, Roger Milliken, Mr. & Mrs. J. P. Mills, E. A. Morris, Hon. Clif Overcash, Philip R. Phillips, Harold Ranstad, Lunsford Richardson, Ralph W. Seely, Mark Seiko, Lloyd H. Smith, Evelyn Taylor, Ronald G. Tinin, Lucien Warner, and Margaret K. Worrall. (2)
The board of directors of The Conservative Caucus Research, Analysis, and Education Foundation in 1986 were: Howard Phillips, president; Michael A. Valerio, vice president, Louis Jenkins, secretary, J. Alan MacKay, treasurer; Edward McAteer; Helen Marie Taylor; Maj. Gen. John K. Singlaub (USA Ret) Richard Shoff; Kathryn McDonald; Milton R. Copulos; Stewart H. Woodward; Donald McAlvany; Jack Ambramoff; and J. A. Parker. In 1986, Duncan W. Sellars was executive director and Helen Gombert was executive assistant. (9)
Richard Viguerie was a principal in TCC from 1975 through 1980. (10)
Sources:1. Letter from The Conservative Caucus, undated, received Mar 1989.
2. Report on trip to South Africa, The Conservative Caucus, Nov 30, 1988.
3. Elton Mazione,"The Private Spy Agency," The National Reporter, Summer 1985.
4. Member’s Report, The Conservative Caucus, Vol. 11, No. 1, Jan-Mar 1988.
5. Recruitment ’88 Form, The Conservative Caucus, 1988.
6. Member’s Report, The Conservative Caucus, Vol. 1, No. 1, Feb 1989.
7. Statement of Principles, The Conservative Caucus, undated, received in 1988.
8. Encyclopedia of Associations, 24th edition, 1990.
9. 990 tax return, The Conservative Caucus Research, Analysis, and Education Foundation, 1986.
10. Alan Crawford, Thunder on the Right (New York, NY: Pantheon Books, 1980).
11."A Call to Arms by the Supporters of Oliver North," The Washington Post, Jan 14, 1987.
12. David Ivon,"Touting for South Africa: International Freedom Foundation," Covert Action Information Bulletin, No. 31, Winter 1989.
13. The Conservative Caucus, annual report, 1989.
14."Repeal the Catastrophic Coverage Act!" funding appeal from The Conservative Caucus, 1989.
from Citizens Against the Catastrophic Health Tax Act, undated, received in 1989.
16. Letter from Howard Phillips, The Conservative Caucus, Sep 25, 1989.
17. Ad, The Conservative Caucus, undated, received with Feb 1989 newsletter.
18. Air Commando Association Newsletter, Aug 1984.
19."Faith in a True Believer," Newsweek, Feb 16, 1987.
20. Tom Burton and Stuart Taylor,"Private Funding of the Contra," Witness for Peace, Aug 1985.
21. Philip Taubman,"Private Groups in U.S. Aiding Managua’s Forces," The New York Times, July 15, 1984.
22. Jack Anderson,"Covert War On Sandinistas Changing Hands," The Washington Post, Sep 14, 1984.
23. Fred Clarkson,"Privatizing the War," Covert Action Information Bulletin, Fall 1984.
24. Sara Diamond, Spiritual Warfare (Boston, MA: South End Press, 1989).
25. Interview with Karen Meyers of Legal Services, May 1990.
26. Group Research Report, Vol 28, No 4, Winter 1989.
27. Russ Bellant, Old Nazis, the New Right & Reagan (Cambridge, MA: Political Research Associates, 1989.
28. Listing of officers and board members of the U.S. Council for World Freedom, received Feb 1987.
29. Report of the Congressional Committees Investigating the Iran-Contra Affair, Nelson Bunker Hunt testimony, Appendix B, Vol. 14, 1987.
30. Mailing list for the board of governors of the Council for National Policy, used until Jan 1, 1985.
31. Letterhead of Citizens for America, 1988.
32."Is There Not a Cause?, I Samuel 17:29," brochure, The Roundtable, undated.
33. Roundtable Report, Vol. 3, No. 1, Summer 1987.
34. Nick Kotz,"King Midas of ‘The New Right’," The Atlantic, Vol. 242, No. 5, 1978.
35. Walter Hatch,"Jail Time Was Start of Try for Legitimacy," Seattle Times, Feb 13, 1989.
36. Group Research Report, Vol. 28, No. 2, Summer 1989.
37. Roundtable Report, Vol. 1, No. 1, Sep/Oct 1983.
38. John Saloma, Ominous Politics (New York, NY: Hill and Wang, 1984).
39. Flo Conway and Jim Siegelman, Holy Terror: The Fundamentalist War on America’s Freedoms in Religion, Politics and Our Private Lives (New York, NY: Delta, 1984).
40. Konrad Ege,"The Anticommunist International," The Guardian, June 2, 1985.
41. Jon Lee Anderson and Scott Anderson, Inside the League: The Shocking Expose of How Terrorists, Nazis, and Latin American Death Squads Have Infiltrated The World Anti-Communist League (New York, NY: Dodd, Mead & Co, 1984).
42. Letterhead from the Emergency Project to Support Colonel North’s Freedom Fight in Central America, received in 1987.
43. Joe Conason and Murray Waas, Village Voice, Oct 22, 1985.
44. Craig Pyes,"Private General," The Nation, Sep 1985.
45. Sara Diamond,"Shepherding," Covert Action Information Bulletin, Spring 1987.
46. Jerry Sanders, Peddlers of Crisis: The Committee on the Present Danger and the Politics of Containment (Boston, MA: South End Press, 1983).
47. Fred Clarkson,"Behind the Supply Lines," Covert Action Information Bulletin, Winter 1986.
48. Derrick Knight,"Profile of Western Goals–UK ," British Council of Churches, Christian Aid, Nov 1988.
49. Peace Through Strength, American Security Council report, undated, received Dec 15, 1988.
50. Susan Richardson,"Which of These Groups Are For You?," Christian Life, Oct 1983.
51. Agenda of the Reunion Conference of the Council on Southern Africa, Mar 1989.
52. MAP International, annual report, 1989.
53. National Defense Council Foundation, brochure, April 1987.
54. Alicia Mundy,"Messing in Action," Regardies, Feb 1988.
55. Private Organizations with U.S. Connections in Guatemala (Albuquerque, NM: The Resource Center, 1988).
56. James Ridgeway,"Crusade for Low-Intensity Conflict," Village Voice, Nov 26, 1985.
57. Don Devereux,"Singlaub and the Good War," newsletter, Aug 31, 1989.
The underlying cites for this profile are now kept at Political Research Associates, (617) 666-5300. www.irc-online.org.