Background: The United States Institute of Peace (USIP) is an institution whose establishment was promoted for many years in Congress as a counterbalance to the Pentagon and its many military-training schools. Early proponents in Congress were Senators Sparks Matsunaga, Jennings Randolph, and Mark Hatfield. (1,3) While many peace activists supported the establishment of USIP, so did the rightwing World Without War Council, bringing in 90,000 signatures in support of the formation of USIP. (3)
The United States Institute of Peace (USIP) was created by Congress in 1984 (ironically it was attached to the 1985 Defense Authorization Bill) as an institution concerned with peace and the processes leading towards peace. (1,3) Congress established USIP as a nonprofit, independent organization to serve the people and the government of the United States through education, training, basic and applied research opportunities, and information services on the means to promote international peace and the peaceful resolution of conflicts among nations and peoples. Members of the board of directors of USIP are selected by the President of the United States and "are precluded from assuming and direct role in foreign-policy making or mediating international disputes."(2) The first board of directors of USIP was sworn in on February 25, 1986. (1)
Congress mandated that the USIP’s work be "nonpartisan, nonideological, and rooted in the highest standards of scholarly and professional integrity." The USIP is supposed to help government and other U.S. leaders identify and unravel the complexities of world politics so they can work to bring about a more peaceful international order. (1) Its prime audiences are: members of the executive branch, members of Congress, congressional staff, policymakers, scholars and diplomats, and journalists; students and teachers in colleges and high schools; and the general public. (1)
USIP has been under criticism since its inception as being a research arm of the government. The USIP board of directors is a who’s who of rightwing academia and government which challenges the institute’s credentials as a nonpartisan and nonideological organization. (3) The legislation that established USIP states that "the Secretary of State, Secretary of Defense, Director of the Arms Control and disarmament Agency, and President of the National Defense University, shall… be ex officio voting members of the Board." Further, the legislation states "the president may request the assignment of any Federal officer or employee to the Institute by an appropriate department or agency, or congressional official or Member of Congress and may enter into an agreement for such assignment… . The Secretary of State, the Secretary of Defense, the Director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, and the Director of Central Intelligence may assign officers and employees of his respective department or agency, on a rotating basis to be determined by the Board, to the Institute [emphasis added]."(1)
In the Powers and Duties section of the establishing legislation the USIP is directed to utilize "to the maximum extent possible United States Government documents and classified materials from the Department of State, the Department of Defense, the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency, and the intelligence community."(1) It is also instructed to "establish a clearinghouse and other means for disseminating information, including classified information that is properly safeguarded, from the field of peace learning to the public and to government personnel with appropriate security clearances."(1)
While the Institute is prohibited from taking an active part in policymaking or implementation, there is a clear mandate for it to take direction from the executive branch of government and to promote and inform Congress and other public officials of desired approaches and solutions compatible with the foreign policy goals of the administration. (1,3) Like the National Endowment for Democracy (NED), another publicly funded, private group funded by Congress, USIP is mandated to conduct–more or less in public view–operations traditionally conducted by intelligence agencies. USIP gives grants for research and study into policy questions and problems that are of interest to the government. The studies are then presented to Congress and the U.S. public as ideas and solutions on conflict resolution and policy directions arising from private sector research. (1,3) Conducting business in this way permits public funding of policy-making elites with minimal accountability to voters or taxpayers. (3)
All grant determinations are made by the board of directors, despite the fact that some directors hold positions in the present administration and most have a long history of connection with the government and military. Initially the majority of grants were given to researchers and scholars committed to cold war paradigms. More recently, the Institute shifted its focus toless confrontational,"democracy-building" projects, leading author Sara Diamond to call the USIP a "funding conduit and clearinghouse for research on problems inherent to U.S. strategies of `low intensity conflict’."(1,3)
A 1988 USIP bylaw states that it will not "sponsor or support classified research, except with the approval of twothirds of the Board." When questioned about this bylaw USIP public spokesperson said that no such research has been approved, but that many grantees work on classified projects with joint funding from intelligence agencies. (3)
Funding: USIP is funded by Congress. Its budget is presented to Congress both by the Office of Management and Budget and by USIP. Congress has authorized $10 million for fiscal years 19881991 and $15 million for 1992 and 1993. The appropriations have been $4,000,000 in 1985 which was used in 1986, $625,000 in 1987; $4,290,000 in 1988; $6,916,000 in 1989; and $7,550,000 in 1990. The operating budget, which includes adustments and carryover and interest has been $4,000,000 in 1986; $4,325,000 in 1987; $5,467,000 in 1988; $7,286,000 in 1989; and $7,995,000 in 1990. (1)
The USIP established a nonprofit tax-exempt entity, the Endowment of the USIP. The USIP transfers its funds from the U.S. Treasury to the Endowment which then invests the funds into short-term Treasury obligations and interest-bearing checking accounts. In 1988 the Endowment generated $122,000 in interest and in 1989, $301,000 in interest. (1)
Of this $21,078,000 (excluding 1990) in funding from 1986 through 1989, USIP has used $6,800,241 or 32 percent for grants. The lion’s share of the grant total–$4,211,603–has been used for research and studies; $1,397,169 have been for education and training and $1,191,469 for information services. (1)
grants to individuals and organizations, fellowships, research and studies, education and training, and library and information services. USIP awards both solicited and unsolicited grants to both U.S. and foreign nationals. Most grants are for 1 to 2 years and range from $25,000 to $35,000. Distinguished Fellows, Peace Fellows, and Peace Scholars are selected under the Jennings Randolph Fellowship Program. Fellows come from around the globe and are invited on the basis of their stature and experience. Peace Scholars are students from U.S. university doctoral programs working on their dissertations. (1)
USIP’s research and studies program includes working-group projects which run for a year or more, study groups which run for 4-6 months and public workshops presenting a 3-hour discussion group on a current topic. The first two generate books or lengthy studies.
USIP has recently established a Publications and Marketing Office to publish and market books, studies and papers generated from its activities. A parallel department, the Public Affairs Office, has been formed to coordinate media relations, speeches, participation of staff and fellows in conferences and public forums and to respond to public inquiries. USIP is also in process of building the Jeanette Rankin Library which, when completed, will house a 25,000 volume core collection and will link scholars with other collections on peace-related fields. (1)
It seems important to take a look at some of the grants given by USIP. This report will look at some of the large grants and at institutions that have received multiple grants from USIP. The organizations receiving the largest number of grants are groups reflecting the policies of the Reagan and Bush administrations. In its initial years USIP grantees reflected cold war ideologies. More recently, studies tend to reflect problems and strategies of low intensity conflict and subjects dealing with the changing political situation in the USSR and Eastern Europe. (1) The institutions receiving the largest number of grants over the life of the USIP have been the Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy, the Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis at Tufts University, the School for Advanced International Studies at Johns Hopkins University and the RAND Corporation. (3) Other groups receiving multiple or large grants between 1987 and 1989 included the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace, the James Madison Foundation, the World Without War Council, and the Institute for Contemporary Studies in San Francisco. (1) USIP Distinguished Fellows for 19891990 included Chester Crocker and Herman Nickel from the Reagan administration and Herman Kelman, a social scientist renowned for his work in conflict resolution. Eugene Rostow, visiting professor at the National Defense University, will be a USIP scholar from 1990 through 1992. (1)
The conservative bias of USIP carries over to its working groups, conferences and public workshops. Of 15 presenters at a working group conference on the Definitions and Assumptions of Deterrence, 13 were from government agencies, right-leaning institutions, or USIP. Represented were: the American Enterprise Institute; Center for National Security Studies at Los Alamos Labs; Center for Strategic and International Studies; McDonnell Douglas Corporation; RAND Corporation; U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency; National Institute for Public Policy; Legal Adviser to the counsel to the President of the United States; and Consultant-Adviser to the Secretary of Defense. (1)
A 1989 conference on the Conditions Affecting Present Trends in Low-Intensity Conflict: Insurgencies and Guerrilla Movements had 11 of 25 participants from the Hoover Institute on War, Revolution and Peace, a conservative think tank. Others came from the RAND Corporation, Freedom House, USIP, and the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced International Studies. (1) One critic of the institute examined the composition of other sections of this eight-part conference series on Low Intensity Conflict and concluded that of 43 presenters and 104 participants only "3 non-rightwing presenters and about the same number of invited participants could be identified."(3)
The USIP occasionally does fund some grants and workshops of a more progressive nature, however. Longtime peace worker and president of the Women’s International League of Peace and Freedom Elise Boulding was the principal speaker at a September 1988 workshop on Pacifism and Citizenship. This was quickly balanced by the next workshop on the U.S. Public Effort for Peace, 1984-88, held in November, which featured Robert Pickus of the World Without War Council. The public workshops are 3hour sessions and rarely lead to more than a paper. USIP also has given $90,000 to progressive educators at the Albert Einstein Institute and Columbia University Teachers College. (1,3)
Contributors to the USIP Journal, consistent with its selection of grantees, tend to represent institutions and private sector organizations that are supportive of current governmental directions and policies. Among them are Carl Gershman, president of NED, Eugene V. Rostow, longtime cold war strategist, Lech Walesa of Solidarity in Poland, Ambassador Paul H. Nitze, and members of the USIP staff. (19,20)
Government Connections: John Norton Moore, who started a three-year term as president of USIP in 1988, was a counselor on international law to the Department of State. He served as U.S. Ambassador to the Third United Nations Conference on the Law of the Sea; Deputy Special Representative of the President to the Law of the Sea Conference, and chairman of the National Security Council Interagency Task Force on the Law of the Sea. (1) The Law of the Sea is a document developed to protect the oceans from exploitation and dumping. It is in force because it has been signed by all but a few nations–the U.S. is among the few nonsignatories of the Law of the Sea. (6) Moore has been Special Counsel for the U.S. in two cases before the International Court of Justice and a consultant to the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. He was also a member of the National Advisory Committee on Oceans and Atmosphere and a U.S. delegate to the Conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe. (1)
Dennis L. Bark has been a member of the President’s Commission on White House Fellowships and chairman of the U.S. Coast Guard Academy Advisory Committee. (1)
William R. Kintner, a West Point graduate, was U.S. Ambassador to Thailand from 1973-1975. (1) Kintner is a former CIA officer. (3)
Evron Kirkpatrick held a number of positions in the Office of Strategic Services (OSS), the precursor to the CIA, from 1945 to 1954. He participated in top secret CIA meetings in 1952 with then-CIA Director General Walter Bedell Smith and others to plan a domestic "national psychological warfare program" as a part of the U.S. cold war strategy. (3) He is married to former U.S. Ambassador to the United Nations Jeane Kirkpatrick. Evron Kirkpatrick, according to author Sara Diamond, was a part of Operation Bloodstone, a covert project to bring Nazi war criminals into U.S. intelligence operations. (3)
W. Scott Thompson has been a White House Fellow, an Assistant to the Secretary of Defense, and an Associate Director of the U.S. Information Agency (USIA). (1)
Robert F. Turner served as an embassy official in Saigon during the Vietnam War. While president at USIP, Turner worked with the State Department producing anti-Nicaragua propaganda. (3) Turner was a lawyer for the CIA and served as counsel to the Intelligence Oversight Board. (4)
W. Bruce Weinrod is Deputy Assistant Secretary of Defense for European and NATO Policy. He was on the White House staff and has written extensively on U.S. foreign and defense policy issues. Weinrod served as a member of the U.S. delegation to the 1986-1988 Vienna Helsinki Agreement Follow-up Talks on the Helsinki Accords. (1)
einstein has served on two UNESCO delegations as U.S. representative: in 1982 to the World Conference on Cultural Policies and in 1983 to the International Program for the Development of Communication. In February 1986 he served as a member of the U.S. Observer Delegation to the elections in the Philippines. (11)
Richard Schifter is the Assistant Secretary of State for Human Rights and Humanitarian Affairs. He has served as U.S. member of the United Nations Human Rights Commission and as Deputy U.S. Representative to the Security Council with the rank of Ambassador. (1)
Stephen J. Hadley is Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Policy and was a senior staff member on the Department of Defense transition team for the Bush administration. Hadley worked for the Tower Commission investigating U.S. arms sales to Iran. He has been a consultant to the Senate Foreign Relations Committee in connection with the Salt II Treaty and has been on the staff of the National Security Council. (1)
Ronald F. Lehman II is director of the U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. He was the Assistant Secretary of Defense for International Security Policy. He was the chief U.S. negotiator for nuclear arms at the arms control talks in Geneva; was on the staff of the Senate Armed Services Committee; was Deputy Assistant to the President for National Security Affairs; and was Senior Director for Arms Control and Defense Programs on the staff of the National Security Council. (1)
John A. Baldwin, Jr is president of the National Defense University. A graduate of Annapolis, Vice Admiral Baldwin has served as Executive Assistant to the Secretary of the Navy, Military Assistant to the Deputy Secretary of Defense, and President of the Naval War College. (1)
Kenneth L. Adelman was director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency at the time he served as an ex-officio board member of USIP. Adelman has served as Deputy U.S. Permanent Representative to the U. N. and has worked for the Agency for International Development (AID) and the Office of Equal Opportunity. (1)
Frank C. Carlucci was a member of the USIP board in his capacity as Secretary of Defense. He has also served in senior positions with the departments of State; Health, Education, and Welfare; the National Security Council; the CIA; the Office of Management and Budget; and the Office of Economic Opportunity. (1)
Richard B. Cheney is Secretary of Defense. He served on the transition team of President Gerald Ford and later became White House Chief of Staff. He served as Wyoming representative in the House of Representatives for five terms. (1)
Eugene V. Rostow was a director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency in the Reagan administration. (5)
Caspar W. Weinberger served on the USIP board when he was Secretary of Defense. Weinberger has been Deputy Director and Director of the Office of Management and Budget, Chairman of the Federal Trade Commission, and was counselor to President Ford. (1)
Max Kampelman was a presidentially appointed ex-officio member of the USIP board. He served as chief arms negotiator for President Ronald Reagan. In the 1960s Kampelman worked as an officer of Operations and Policy Research, Inc, an organization paid by the CIA for contract research. (4)
Samuel W. Lewis, president of USIP, retired from the State Department in 1985 after 31 years as a Foreign Service officer. He was ambassador to Israel for eight years under President Reagan. Prior to that he served as Assistant Secretary of State for International Organization Affairs, Deputy Director of the Policy Planning Staff, member of the U.S. AID mission to Brazil and special assistant to the Under Secretary of State. (1) During his stint in Brazil (1964-1966) a US-backed coup toppled the elected government of Brazil. Lewis served as senior staff member on the National Security Council from 1968-1969 where he helped formulate Latin American policy. (3) There is also some question about his knowledge of the Iran-Contra happenings in Israel. Lewis acknowledges that he knew Michael Ledeen was present in Israel, but says he had no idea that Ledeen’s mission was to set up contacts for the Iran arms deal. (3)
Charles E. Nelson, executive vice president of the Institute, has been a senior staff member of the Agency for International Development (AID). He was an executive in the government-funded RAND Corporation. (1)
John Richardson spent seven years (1961-1968) as head of the United States Information Agency’s (USIA) Radio Free Europe. These were the years that USIA was closely linked to the CIA. (1,12) Richardson was Assistant Secretary of State for Educational and Cultural Affairs from 1969-1971. (12)
Of the ten principals of USIP staff not mentioned in detail above, only three have not been involved in government service. (1)
Chester Crocker, Distinguished Fellow for 1988-1989, served as Assistant Secretary of State for African Affairs during the eight years of the Reagan administration. He was also principal mediator in the negotiations among Angola, Cuba, and South Africa in the Angola-Namibia talks in 1988. (1)
Herman Nickel, Distinguished Fellow for 1989-1990, was the U.S. Ambassador to South Africa from 1982 to 1986. (1) Nickel is currently Diplomat in Residence and Director of Southern African Studies at the Paul H. Nitze School of International Studies at the Johns Hopkins School of Advanced and International Studies, a major recipient of USIP grants. (1,18)
Paul Seabury was an intelligence adviser to President Reagan and former CIA chief of station in Turkey. (4)
Private Connections: John Norton Moore was or is a Fellow of the Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars and is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the American Law Institute. (1) Moore serves on the Strategy Board of the American Security Council (ASC). The ASC began in the 1950s as a surveillance group for internal "subversives" (i. e. Communists) and since has become a pro-military lobbying group through its Coalition for Peace Through Strength. (3,5) He also serves, along with Kintner and Liebman, on the board of the intelligencelinked U.S. Global Strategy Council. (3) Moore is/was a member of the board of directors of the National Strategy Information Center, a rightwing think tank with a history of promoting a hardline, aggressive U.S. foreign policy. (5,22)
Dennis L. Bark is a senior fellow of the Hoover Institution on War, Revolution and Peace at Stanford University. (1) The Hoover Institution is a rightwing think tank that is heavily supported by corporations and supportive of an aggressive foreign policy agenda for the U.S. (10)
William R. Kintner is the author of a virulently anticommunist book entitled "The Front Is Everywhere." He is a member of the board of the U.S. Global Strategy Council, a group composed of military intelligence strategists and headed by former deputy director of the CIA, Ray Cline. (3) Kintner is or was on the Strategy Board of the American Security Council. (3)
Samuel Lewis, while president of USIP, also works with the Washington Institute on Near East Policy, a think tank that has helped to shape the Reagan and Bush policies on the Middle East. (3)
John Richardson was chairman of the board of the National Endowment for Democracy (NED) from 1984 to 1988. NED is a private, government-supported institution (like USIP), purportedly established to support democratic processes worldwide. Like USIP NED has been criticized for using government funding to carry out government activities under the guise of a private-sector organization. (12) Richardson has been chair of the USIA-associated Consortium for International Citizen Exchange, president of Youth for Understanding, board member of Global Perspectives in Education, board member of Institutional Psychiatry and Foreign Affairs, and executive director o
f CSIS. For 20 years he was involved with Freedom House, a group heavily supported by NED, and was president and director of the International Rescue Committee, a virulently anticommunist group that also receives support from the NED. (12)
Elspeth Davies Rostow is married to Walt Rostow, a major architect of the Vietnam War. Her brother is Eugene V. Rostow, a USIP grant recipient and member of the cold war groups the Coalition for a Democratic Majority and the Committee on the Present Danger. (3,6,7)
Eugene V. Rostow was a major figure in policy development for the original Committee on the Present Danger (CPD) and was a member of the revitalized CPD II. (5) He is or was on the Coalition for a Democratic Majority. (21)
Morris Liebman was for many years the chairman of the standing committee on Law and National Security of the American Bar Association. USIP credits Liebman with being a co-founder, along with Ray Cline, of the Center for Strategic and International Studies (CSIS). CSIS is a rightwing think tank that was originally connected to Georgetown University. Georgetown severed the relationship in July 1987 because of the strong identification of CSIS with the agenda of the Reagan administration on arms control, South Africa, and Central America. Georgetown was also disturbed because large contributions to CSIS came from defense contractors. (9) Liebman is also co-founder of the anticommunist, hawkish think tanks National Strategy Information Center and the U.S. Global Strategy Council. (3,10)
W. Scott Thompson is a founding member of the board of the Committee on the Present Danger. He is a member of the Council on Foreign Relations and the International Institute for Strategic Studies. Thompson works with Kintner and Moore of USIP on the Strategy Board of the American Security Council. (3) He also serves on the board of the Institute for Strategic Trade. (1)
W. Bruce Weinrod was the director of foreign policy and defense studies at the conservative think tank, Heritage Foundation. He is a member of the International Institute for Strategic Studies and on the Council on Foreign Relations. He also serves on the board of the Foreign Student Service Council. He has worked as the manager of international corporate affairs for the Chase Manhattan Bank. (1)
Allen Weinstein is president of the Center for Democracy, a group that has been very active in electoral intervention strategies in Central America. The Center for Democracy has been funded by the NED and AID, and sent observer delegations to monitor Nicaragua’s 1990 elections. (3,12) After directing the research study which led to the incorporation of NED, Weinstein became the acting president of NED and in 1984 he became the president of the Center for the Study of Democratic Institutions which received a grant from the NED. (11,12) In the early 1980s Weinstein was the executive director of CSIS’s Washington Quarterly. He has been a board member of the Consortium for the Study of Intelligence and currently serves on the board of the Oscar Arias Foundation of North America and the Coalition for a Democratic Majority. (12)
Max Kampelman is chairman of Freedom House, a neoconservative "democracy building" organization that receives major support from NED. (13,14) Kampleman is or was the general Counsel to the Committee on the Present Danger. (15) He was also vice chair and on the board of directors of the Committee for a Democratic Majority. (5)
Paul Seabury is a member of the advisory board of the American Initiatives Project of the World Without War Council, a national group that proports to "find non-military ways to conduct and resolve conflict." However, WWWC is suspect among peace groups as it has direct connections to the government and intelligence agencies, was supportive of the Reagan administration policies in Central America, and has led attacks on other anti-war groups. (4) WWWC has received numerous grants from USIP. (1) Seabury is or was on the board of advisers of the Institute on Religion and Democracy, another conservative group active in Central America, and on the boards of the Committee on the Present Danger and the Coalition for a Democratic Majority. (5,16,21) Seabury was a member of the Consortium for the Study of Intelligence, a project of the military-strategy think tank the National Strategy Information Center, a group cofounded by Morris Liebman. (17)
Misc: In speaking of the projects USIP chooses to pursue, USIP president Lewis said,"we want to select the topics carefully and in consultation with key people in government who would be the primary `end users. ‘" The rationale for this was brought out at 1987 Congressional Oversight Hearings by USIP grantee Joseph V. Montville from the Foreign Service Institute of the State Department. Montville testified,"The more that the United States can develop low cost problem-solving and conflict resolution techniques for application as soon as a potential security crisis occurs, the less the Defense Department will have to worry about scarcity of military resources if the crisis grows and gets out of hand."(3)
According to author Diamond, in one of his reports published by the Institute for Foreign Policy Analysis at Tufts, Robert Turner states he was provided with "boxes upon boxes of classified and unclassified cables and memoranda" from the Defense Department and the CIA. (3)
In 1989 USIP attacked the credibility of renowned Norwegian professor of peace studies, Johan Galtung. Galtung’s writings have worked to develop an understanding of peace as far more than just the absence of war, but the absence of violence in its many forms. USIP claimed Galtung’s works showed a "serious lack of scholarly discipline, confused methodology, impulse toward political activism and narrowmindedness with respect to developments in international relations and strategic studies." Galtung responded and asked USIP to print a retraction or to print his rebuttal to this attack. Galtung wrote to Lewis,"It is the mark of the scholar to recognize mistakes publicly… and the mark of the propagandist not to do so." Galtung received no reply to his letter. (3)
Comments: The USIP is a publicly-funded private institution which by mandate will research and come up with solutions to current policy problems of the U.S. government. As such, it is a tool of the government and those working for it must pass the scrutiny of those in power. The current makeup of the USIP, both the board and the grantees, reflect the policies and preoccupations of the Reagan and Bush administrations.
U.S. Address: 1550 M Street, Suite 700, Washington DC 20005.
Principals: Members of the board of directors in 1989 were: John Norton Moore, chairman; Elspeth Davies Rostow, vice chairman; Dennis L. Bark; William R. Kintner; Evron M. Kirkpatrick; Morris I. Leibman; Reverend Sidney Lovett; Pastor Richard John Neuhaus; W. Scott Thompson; W. Bruce Weinrod; Allen Weinstein; and Samuel W. Lewis (nonvoting). (1)
Ex Officio members of the board in 1989 were: Richard Schifter for the Department of State; Stephen J. Hadley for the Department of Defense; Ronald F. Lehman II for the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency; and Vice Admiral John A. Baldwin, Jr. for the National Defense University. Others who served as Ex Officio board members between 1987 and 1989 were: Kenneth L. Adelman 1986-1987; William F. Burns 1988-1989; Frank C. Carlucci; Richard B. Cheney; Bradley C. Hosmer; and Caspar W. Weinberger. Jennings Randolph is the board’s senior advisor. (1) Max Kampleman was an ex-officio member of the the USIP board. (4)
Officers in 1989 were: Samuel W. Lewis, president; Charles E. Nelson, executive vice president; Charles Furyea Smith, general counsel; Kenneth M. Jensen, director of research and studies program; Patricia M. Bandy, director of publications
and marketing; Jeanne L. Bohlen, director of the Jeannette Rankin Library program; Bernice J. Carney, director of administration; Michael S. Lund, director of the Jennings Randolph Fellowship program; Gregory M. McCarthy, director of public affairs and special assistant to the president; David Little, director of the working group on religion, ideology, and peace; John Richardson, counselor to the president and director of the education and training program; and Hrach Gregorian, director of the grant program. Geraldine U. Jones was the director of the Jeanette Rankin Library program prior to 1989. (1)
The first president of USIP, appointed by President Reagan, was Robert F. Turner.
2. Letter from Karen Dacek, program assistant, United States Institute of Peace, Feb 27, 1989.
3. Richard Hatch and Sara Diamond,"Operation Peace Institute," Z Magazine, July/Aug 1990.
4. Richard Hatch and Sara Diamond,"The World Without War Council," Covert Action Information Bulletin, No. 31, Winter 1989.
5. Jerry Sanders, Peddlers of Crisis: The Committee on the Present Danger and the Politics of Containment (Boston, MA: South End Press, 1983).
6. Phone interview with Don Hancock, Southwest Research and Information Center, Sep 13, 1989.
7. Letterhead from the Coalition for a Democratic Majority, July 1989.
8. Telephone conversation with the Committee on the Present Danger, July 19, 1989.
9."Hammond Shore Backing Quayle in American Effort to Undermine Labour," (London) Tribune, Vol 25, No. 36, Sep 2, 1988.
10. Prexy Nesbitt, Apartheid in Our Living Rooms: U.S. Foreign Policy and South Africa (Chicago, IL: Midwest Research, 1987).
11."Allen Weinstein: Biographical Sketch," Boston University, undated.
12. National Endowment for Democracy (NED): A Foreign Policy Branch Gone Awry (Albuquerque, NM: The Resource Center, 1990).
13. Encyclopedia of Associations, 1986.
14. Raymond D. Gastil,"The Comparative Survey of Freedom: 1989," Freedom at Issue, Jan/Feb 1989.
15. Conversation with CPD, July 19, 1989.
16. Letter from Maria H. Thomas, Institute on Religion and Democracy, Oct 9, 1986.
17. Memorandum from Roy Godson to participants in the Colloquium on Clandestine Collection, Nov 12, 1982.
18. USIP,"Chester Crocker Among 11 Fellows Named By USIP," press release, May 26, 1989.
19. USIP Journal, Volume III, No. 2, June 1990.
20. USIP Journal, Vol II, No. 3, Aug 1989.
21. Letterhead of the Coalition for a Democratic Majority, July 1989.
22. Special Operations in U.S. Strategy, National Strategy Information Center, 1984.
The underlying cites for this profile are now kept at Political Research Associates, (617) 666-5300. www.irc-online.org.